Se diseñaron los biorreactores, utilizando principios de similitud; para la producción del alcohol etílico, se diseñó un biorreactor del tipo Lecho Empacado . Inmovilización de levaduras en residuos lignocelulósicos para la producción de etanol en biorreactor de lecho empacado. En las fermentaciones realizadas en los biorreactores de lecho empacado con el biocatalizador (soporte + levaduras), se logró obtener un aumento en la.

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Yeast immobilization in lignocellulosic wastes for ethanol production in packed bed bioreactor. Bloque 5 laboratorio Recibido el 5 de abril de Aceptado el 24 de febrero de This study is focused on the development of an immobilization process of yeast cells in waste lignocellulosic materials and their evaluation in the ethanol production by using emlacado bed bioreactors.

We evaluated four different waste lignocellulosic materials: The characterization made it possible to establish the microscopic structural differences between the four materials, as well as biorreacror differences in composition of lignin, cellulose, hemicelluloses and ash.

lecoh A protocol for packaging materials and a quantification methodology of immobilized biomass was developed. An experimental design was conducted to determine the effects of the size of lignocellulosic materials on cell immobilization and to ve the effects of the flow rate in the immobilized cells when the fermentation is performed in packed bed empacao.

Under the established experimental conditions we determined the size and flow rate that provided the better operational stability for the fermentation in packed bed bioreactor. The result of the study showed that the material in which the biggest amount of cells was immobilized was the sugar cane bagasse, and we obtained a value of 0.

This amount of immobilized biomass is significant compared to the values reported by other authors. As a result of the experimental design of the influence of flow and size of the carrier on the immobilization, it was established that there is no significant statistical difference in the range of the values used in the experiment size of 3.

The size of the carrier selected was 3. The results have established the lcho potential of ethanol production by continuous fermentation with immobilized cells in waste lignocellulosic materials. Immobilization yeasts cells, bioethanol, biofuels, lignocellulosic carriers, continuous fermentation. Se evaluaron cuatro diferentes residuos de materiales lignocelulosicos: Esta cantidad de biomasa inmovilizada es significativa comparada con los valores reportados por otros autores.

High oil prices and decrease of world stock, in addition biorrezctor the concerns about the continuous deterioration of the environment, have given a strong push to the search for alternative energy sources in recent years, particularly the development of liquid biofuels to replace oil and its derivatives, and reduce the negative impact on the atmosphere caused by burning fossil fuels.

In the last two decades there has been an increase of research focused on developing new technologies for ethanol production from renewable sources, and the efforts have focused towards the development of much more efficient production processes [1- 3]. Most industrial processes for ethanol production use batch systems, which are being implemented in Colombia in new production plants [4]. Some of the disadvantages of these processes are: Lefho an alternative, continuous processes are brought up, which can reduce production costs, improve process efficiency and increase empacad yield.

Continuous processes that use immobilized cells show great advantages over those using free cells, since they facilitate the separation of the product, allow re-use of the biocatalyst, they have a high volumetric productivity, and facilitate the control of process variables as well as reducing the risk of contamination [5].

However, fermentations with immobilized cells biogreactor have some disadvantages, such as the difficulty to predict changes in biorreaactor growth, physiology and metabolic activity, biirreactor the presence of mass transfer limitation by diffusion. Other authors have reported improvements [6, 7]. There are also demanding requirements for materials used as carriers, since chemical, physical and biological stability has to be ensured, and the carriers and the technique must be low cost and easy to implement on an industrial scale.

Among the most widely used immobilization matrices are hydrophilic polymer gels such as biorrreactor, carrageenate, agarose, etc. However, this method of immobilization is impractical on an industrial scale because of the cost of raw materials and the relative complexity in the preparation of biocatalysts with respect to the operational lifetime in the process [8- 10].

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Other methods of immobilization in relation to the union of the cells to the carrier are: In recent years, raw materials derived from agro-industrial waste and their application as promising carriers for the immobilization of cells have been evaluated. For instance, the sugar cane bagasse [12], delignified cellulosic materials [13], orange peel [14], spent grains [15, 16], wood chips [17], among others. On these carriers the cells are immobilized by adsorption, a simple and economically favorable technique.

The cellulosic materials are regenerable, reusable, sterilizable on heat, biologically and chemically stable under different fermentation conditions and with adequate mechanical resistance [18].

The main mechanisms that occur during immobilization by adsorption are: Most of these mechanisms are spontaneously generated during contact between cells and carrier, so adsorption is one of the simplest mechanisms to perform, both in a laboratory and industrial level. The aim of this study is to establish a process of cell immobilization on lignocellulosic waste and their potential use in the production of ethanol.

The proposed hypothesis is that these materials are appropriate matrices for the immobilization of yeast cells, which allow high cellular activity, lasting stability and they enable continuous operation for the production of ethanol.

The lignocellulosic wastes used in this research are obtained from agro-industries and they are abundant in our country. The medium for inoculum and fermentation is composed of: The pH was adjusted to 5. Immobilization matrices Used as immobilization matrices were lignocellulosic materials, sugar cane bagasse, corn leaves, corn cobs and wood shavings, obtained as agro-industrial waste.

These materials were subject to a conditioning process that involved the implementation of a protocol for cleaning, drying and size reduction. The average sizes of the pieces obtained were 3.

Biomass quantification Protocol dry weight modified technique After completion ofthe 12 hours of immobilization baseline, the biomass quantification process developed was as follows: Drying time elapsed, biocatalysts were left idle until they reached room temperature, then 9 samples of each one were taken, with an approximate weight of 0. Series of three tubes were filled with 50 ml of water, isotonic solution and NaOH 0. De-inmobilization was performed by mechanical agitation at rpm for 24 hours at room temperature.

After drying, they biorreactod weighed again. The same process was implemented with cell-free material to be used as blank. The immobilized biomass was obtained from the dry weight difference of the carrier before and after the de-immobilization process, and the value was corrected using the blank.

Yeast immobilization in lignocellulosic wastes for ethanol production in packed bed bioreactor

For the development of the protocol three solutions were evaluated: Each treatment was performed in triplicate. Study of the effect of size and flow rate for each material To determine the effect on immobilization of flow rate and the carrier size, we performed a factorial experimental design with 2 factors and 2 levels, and a central point with three replicates.

The results of this experiment were analyzed using the statistical analysis program Design Expert. Immobilization under fermentative conditions in mL bioreactor We used a glass column of ml capacity, fitted jacket for temperature epacado and two peristaltic pumps for feeding fresh culture medium and circulation of water through the jacket.

The baseline immobilization was performed by following the yeast immobilization protocol. Subsequently, the bioreactor was filled with fresh culture medium and allowed to operate with recirculation for 12 hours [19]. The empaacdo variables evaluated in this study were the reduced sugars consumption, and ethanol production. Analytical methods Microbial biomass was determined by the dry weight modified protocol developed in this research.

The reduced sugars in the culture medium were determined using the technique of DNS [20]. The ethanol concentration was determined by HPLC, by analyzing samples of the effluent of the reactors.

We used a column Supelco gel CH with the following conditions: The method of detection was rate refraction, and the retention time was The Scanning Electron Microscopy technique SEM was used to observe the differences in the structures of materials and cell immobilization. Determination of lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose and ash contents was carried out by the detergent method of Van Soest [21].

Due to heterogeneity in nature and origin of agro-industrial waste used in the experiment, and to avoid interference in the subsequent process of cell immobilization, it was necessary to establish a cleaning treatment biorrewctor adapting materials. Figure 2 shows the empacadoo upon completion of the process of conditioning.

Although lecjo this process high temperatures are applied to reduce significantly the initial microbial load of materials, we found the need of sterilization before they were used in the immobilization. Figure 3 shows the growth of microorganisms in petri dishes containing nutrient agar and pieces of non-sterile materials; however, there is no growth in the petri dishes that were placed in sterile lignocellulosic residues.

Figure 4 presents the results of the images obtained from scanning electron micrographs SEM. Differences on the surface of the structures of the four materials biorfeactor be found, these differences can lead to changes in yeast cell immobilization. The adsorption in these carriers can occur by different mechanisms, such as mechanical adsorption and retention in the pores of the carriers, adherence to the areas for different types of bonds and immobilization due to hydrophobic or biochemical interactions between carriers and cells.

These immobilization mechanisms are not only dependent of the surface characteristics of the carriers, they depend on cell surface characteristics, the carrier used and the operational conditions under which the immobilization is carried out flow, temperature, etc.

To establish which of these mechanisms were involved in immobilization on the lignocellulosic materials used, it is necessary to study each of these characteristics. Regarding materials composition, the percentages of lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose and ash that are presented in table 1there are different proportions in each material; these differences can directly affect yeast immobilization. For example, lignin values of sugar cane bagasse, wood shavings and corncob are high, Lignin is the substance that gives stability and rigidity to lignocellulosic material, so the low value for corn leaves may cause a structural weakness of material, it could affect the continuous operation for long periods, reducing their potential for use in immobilization processes on an industrial level.

To establish immobilization capacity on each of the materials and determine the effect of size and flow rate in the process, we standardized the biomass quantification methodology on the carriers. We studied various techniques spectrophotometry, protein quantification and dry weight boirreactor the better results were obtained with the dry weight technique, which was modified to allow direct quantification of biomass immobilized on the carrier.

The protocol developed was described in the methodology biomass quantification protocol. By this methodology it was possible the direct determination of immobilized biomass ensuring reproducibility in the quantification. Table 2presents the results in this standardization, when we used the biomass quantification protocol proposal. In the first column the carriers studied are listed corn leaves, iborreactor shavings, corn cob and cane bagasse.

Treatment column corresponds to the different solutions evaluated NaOH 0. Blanks were evaluated using cell-free material. As shown, the values obtained in the two reactors for treatment using water and isotonic solutions are not suitable for immobilized biomass determination.

The results are not valid for the proposed protocol, because the negative values represent high quantity of cells on the carrier at the end of the de-immobilization process. In addition, the results have high deviations.

Revista Facultad de Ingeniería

However, the treatments with NaOH 0. Based on these results we chose the biomass quantification protocol modified dry weight treatmentthat uses NaOH 0. The experimental design was developed to determine the appropriate size and flow rate used in alcoholic fermentation in a ml bioreactor. In the experimental design, 15 treatments were evaluated by combining three sizes 3.

To determine the size range of the carriers, we considered the bioreactor used and mass transfer criteria for packed bed columns. For flow rate we considered the specifications of peristaltic pumps available in the laboratory and the residence time established previously in the bioreactor used.

Table 3 presents the consolidated experiments matrix with the results obtained.

We can see that the amount of immobilized cells varies depending on the treatment biorreactro the material. The high variability in each of the treatments for different materials is indicated by the high deviations values and it is confirmed by the lack of statistical significance.

The experimental design analysis using Design Expert software allowed us to establish that there is no significant statistical difference between treatments.


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Singani is distilled from white Muscat of Alexandria grapes.

It is produced only in the Bolivian high valleys and is considered the national liquor of Bolivia and a cultural patrimony. Its character and production methods are closest to eau-de-vie but it is classified as a brandy for purposes of international trade. Singani has been produced since the 16th century shortly after the Spanish arrived in South America. It was first distilled by monastic orders who needing sacramental wine found it expedient to also distill. Most sources say the name singani derives from a pre-Columbian village of that name near the mission that first distilled the liquor.

Singani – Wikipedia

Bolivian regulations in es have codified what has long been practiced, and the vineyards from which singani is made are to be planted at elevations of 1, m 5, feet or higher. Singani is thereby known as an altitude product in Bolivian legal terms, the official phrase “of altitude” being also applied to Bolivian wines and grapevine cultivars.

Although there are vineyards at elevations much higher than the official minimum, they are difficult to manage, and most production comes from plantations at around 1, m 6, feet above sea level close to where the wineries and distillation facilities are located.

There are various such placenames in Bolivia, historically and today. It is currently not clear which site first became known for producing singani liquor, although there are at least three probable candidates. Based on genetic studies [ citation needed ]two seminal varieties of grape were introduced to the Americas as early as by Spanish immigrants arriving via the Canary Islands where these varieties were well established, muscat of alexandria and mission grape.

Spanish explorers under Francisco Pizzaro reached the Inca empire in They and accompanying religious orders entered the land supfemo south of Cuzco almost immediately thereafter.

By while Lower Peru was still unsettled due to war, official Spanish cities such as the future archdiocese at Sucre were initiated in Upper Peru or what is today Bolivia.

Because of the importance of this site—nearly all of the silver on the Spanish Main originated from there—special attention from the Spanish Crown and allied missions resulted edcreto the establishment of a greater number of religious settlements in the general area.

Within this timeframe the growing mining town of Potosi became the Imperial City of Potosi, at that time one of the largest and richest cities in the world, and by far the largest city in the Americas. Grapevines were introduced into the mountain valleys of Bolivia by Spanish missionaries arriving as early asand the production of wine in Bolivia is first known from these places. The date range for the initiation of wine production in Bolivia is from about the s to the s grapevines take a number of years to mature which corresponds approximately to the initiation of winemaking in neighboring Peru and Uspremo.

It is generally believed that singani as a name for the distilled spirit arose in that timeframe during the latter half of the 16th Century. Most distilled liquor in the Spanish colonies was called aguardientemany present-day liquor names in the Americas being adopted only by the 17th Century or later.

The three likely areas where the use of the word singani got its start stretch in an arc from the Potosi to the Spanish royal road connecting Lima and Buenos Aires partially based on the earlier Inca road system. Sivingani Canton in Mizque Province was an early religious mission center and wine producer in the s. After the founding of Potosi inSpanish settlers traveled from there to the Cintis to give birth, it being too cold and socially turbulent in Potosi.

Subsequently, residents of Potosi who acquired wealth founded villas in the valley of the Cintis. By this area became the major center of wine and singani production initiating many of the first non-monastic commercial ventures.

By the 20th Century Tarija had become the dominant supplier, and wine and singani manufacturers began to consolidate their business there. However, since the year there has been a resurgence of interest in the original Cinti region, and there are several small producers located there who are reinvigorating early brands.

Over time, as the industry matured, the largest manufacturers of singani settled on a single grape variety for their product, and this plus altitude minimums for vineyards began to be codified in national regulations. Unlike neighboring pisco which spread itself across two contending countries, singani has always been made only in the territory of Bolivia, and no domain controversy exists as it has for pisco.

Part of the motivation was to establish standards so that moonshine could not be called singani. Another impetus was to solidify control of the singani name, [18] [19] the unsatisfactory experience of pisco [20] [21] and of tequila which can be exported in bulk and bottled under foreign labels being cases in point.

Bolivian Supreme Decree declares singani an exclusive and native product of Bolivia, where the word singani cannot be otherwise used, or modified for use, outside of its stated purpose. No such agreement on type exists with Bolivia and thus singani must be traded in the USA under the nearest existing TTB class which is brandy.

The singani area subject to actual production covers about decretp, acres of mountainous terrain, compared to aboutacres for cognac and 83, acres for champagne.

FAUTAPO is an internationally funded source of study, education, promotion, and development of the grape, wine, and singani industry in Bolivia. The legally defined zones for the vineyards and distilleries that produce singani include Provinces in four of the nine Departments of Bolivia. Not all areas of these provinces are suitable for viticulture. In the La Paz provinces the land is steeply vertical and the weather is semi-tropical. In the Potosi provinces the land is very high over 13, feetcold, windswept and arid.

Such conditions limit vineyards to small municipalities and cantons within the provincial areas as listed by Law The zones of production for GI Singani are: Of all the grape varieties shipped to the new world by Spanish immigrants, the variety vitis vinifera muscat of alexandria was most prized for its intense aroma. The grapes for singani are produced in the Andes mountains at elevations from 5, up to 9, feet above sea level.

For example, the vineyards at San Juan del Oro in Tarija are at 8, feet amsl. Given the proximity to the equator, thermoclines are higher, with a lower probability of freezing even supremoo winter nights.

The structure of surrounding mountain peaks protects growing regions from seasonal cold fronts surazos and hailstorms that can damage plants. Mountain air tends to be thin, cold and dry, yet solar radiation is stronger, passing through both warming radiation and intense ultraviolet light. Due to the fact that mountain air cannot hold heat well, grapevines experience dramatic daily air temperature fluctuations.

Supgemo of altitude vineyards by CENAVIT and other organizations suggest that fruit subject to these conditions tends to produce greater concentrations of monoterpene aromatics held in decgeto free state rather than sequestered as oils.

The soil is fluvial erosion from surrounding peaks, well structured deep clay and sandy loam with good pitch and permeability.

Unlike other vinous spirits, nomenclature singani is made decrero from the Alexandria varietal and is single batch, never blended. The profile is achieved without barrel aging, much like tequila.

The coded regulatory organoleptic properties of singani are, aspect: Singani does not contain sulfites, colorants, marc or lees, flavor enhancers or other additives which may be present in other spirits like brandy. Bolivian regulations have further tightened in recent years and singani is held to significantly stricter standards of chemical purity than what may be allowed in other countries.

For example, singani must assay at less than 0.

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Grapevines are tended year round, but the fruit is harvested only once a year. Distillation today uses European batch stills and stainless holding tanks to maintain quality. Stills must not introduce insoluble solids or suspended cellulose as when heated they release odors and affect the aromatic quality of Singani. The goal of distillation is to capture the aromatics while removing cecreto all fusel oil. The resulting profile must be just right because barrel aging or blending cannot be used to alter it.

Distilled liquor is held for precisely 6 months in clean neutral vessels before bottling so as to allow the aroma profile to intensify. Much of the profile of aged liquor comes from ethanol interacting with wood which produces vanillins and other co-generated compounds. A grape richer in desirable aromatics is therefore preferable to thin, acidic varieties as may be used for cognac.

Given current national standards, such a liquor could not rightfully be called singani. As is true for nearly all liquors produced for human consumption, singani comes off the still at a higher proof than it is bottled. This is done to reduce if not eliminate the level of fusel oil. Singani manufacturers take care to keep undesirable substances out of the product so that the decrteo terpenol profile dominates and is not blemished by off-odors such as grassiness amyl alcoholpineapple ethyl butyrateand other congeners.

Singani has no detectable supemo and actually must taste smooth according to its legal profile. There are 3 major singani manufacturers, several medium producers, and a host of small operations. Only the three majors have the reach to supply the entire country, medium suppliers typically cover a particular region, and small firms specialize in very local markets. Together, these three account for most consumption of singani.

Many Bolivian producers tier their brands with colors, black, red, blue, to reach different markets, much the way whisky producer Johnnie Walker does. In4 million bottles of singani were produced by the industry. By the year total acreage in vineyards was between 12, and 13, acres which includes all uses of grapes, table, wine, and singani. Beginning in the yearsingani producers, notably Bodegas Kuhlmann, have made a concerted effort to enter international competition. The industry has focused on professional non-commercial contests such as the Concours Mondial de Bruxelles [38] and those sponsored by the French Oenologists Union.

Since its inception in the mid- to late s, singani has been often drunk as is, cocktail culture only being introduced in the 19th Century.

Sometime in the s railroad engineers from Britain and America began to lay down track in the Andes nations supermo Bolivia. Unable to get either one in-country, British expatriates improvised with singani and whatever bubbly came to hand.

This proto “mixed drink” was an essential part of the long trips in the mountains in unheated buses, and still has its fans even in the tropical parts of Bolivia. Singani supreml also the traditional drink at weddings, religious holidays, birthday parties, and other celebrations.

Bolivia — Bolivia, officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia, is a landlocked country located in western-central South America. It is bordered to the north and east by Brazil, to the southeast by Paraguay, to the south by Argentina, to the southwest by Chile, and to the northwest by Peru. One-third of the country is the Andean mountain range, with one of its largest cities and principal economic centers, El Alto, Bolivia is one of two landlocked countries that lie outside Afro-Eurasia.

Bolivia is geographically the largest 2711 country in the Americas, but remains a small country in economic. During the Spanish colonial period Bolivia was administered by the Royal Audiencia of Charcas, spain built its empire in great part upon the silver that was extracted from Bolivias mines.

Since independence, Bolivia has endured periods of political and economic instability, including the loss of peripheral territories to its neighbors, such as Acre.

The countrys population, estimated at 11 million, is suprdmo, including Amerindians, Mestizos, the racial and social segregation that arose from Spanish colonialism has continued to the modern era. Spanish is the official and predominant language, although 36 indigenous languages also have official status, of which the most commonly spoken are Guarani, Aymara, modern Bolivia is constitutionally a unitary state, divided into nine departments.

Its geography varies from the peaks of the Andes in the West, to the Eastern Lowlands and it is a developing drcreto, with a medium ranking in the Human Development Index and a poverty level of 53 percent. Its main economic activities include agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, and manufacturing such as textiles, clothing, refined metals.

Sucre opted to create a new nation and, with local support. The name was approved by the Republic on 3 Octoberthe region now known as Bolivia had been occupied for over 2, years when the Aymara arrived. However, present-day Aymara associate themselves with the ancient civilization of the Tiwanaku culture which had its capital at Tiwanaku, the capital city of Tiwanaku dates from as early as BC when it was a small, agriculturally based village.

The community grew to urban proportions between AD and AD, becoming an important regional power in the southern Andes.

Cyperaceae — The Cyperaceae are a family of monocotyledonous graminoid flowering plants known as sedges, which superficially resemble grasses and rushes.

The family is large, with some 5, known species described in about dereto genera and these species are widely distributed, with the centers of diversity for the group occurring in tropical Asia and tropical South America.


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dungeonscale Until then, please continue to follow us on Twitter and Facebook. We reviewed the beta earlier this month, and even we struggled to say much nice about it. I had hope for the future, but many other users around the internet were a lot… angrier. There were definitely problems.

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So what of Dungeonscape? The Dice of Doom is a blog about gaming, being a gamer and general interest content suitable for nerds.

Home Podcasts Suggest a podcast topic! Dungeonscape killed off by WotC! Posted on October 30, by Duncan. Saga Edition, Paranoia, and more. He DMs a lot, and tends to make overly-complicated campaigns and characters.

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The 17 Indisputable Laws of Teamwork Workbook: The 17 Indisputable Laws of Teamwork has quickly become one of John Maxwell’s bestselling books on leadership. Now, in this companion workbook, Dr. Maxwell provides a tool every person can use to adapt the 17 Laws to leadership at home, work, and church. Paperbackpages. Published February 9th by HarperCollins Leadership. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. Lists with This Book.

This qorkbook is not yet featured on Listopia. I finally decided to teajwork this book about halfway through and didn’t finish it.

It’s very rare for me to not finish a book I begin, so I think that’s quite indicative. I read Maxwell’s more famous leadership book in college and was thoroughly bored and disappointed with it. Maybe because my expectations were sufficiently low this time around, but I didn’t find it quite so insubstantial as I feared.

Even still, the substance I did find was mostly that some of the topics he focused on were goo I finally decided to shelve this book about halfway through and didn’t finish it.

Even still, the substance I did find was mostly that some of the topics he focused on were good for conversation with a mentor, rather than Maxwell’s writing providing sufficient insight himself. Overall, I’d say it’s an OK book to consider basic and generic teamwork principles without anything especially insightful actually contained within it.

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And, as for Maxwell’s status as a “Christian” leadership workbookk, I can say there’s nothing at all in this book or his other more famous leadership book to suggest anything at all specifically related to Christ or Christian principles.

In fact, some of it, in the ways it related to more typical American business “common sense”, could even be said to be opposite the teachings and examples of Jesus.

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Maxwell is an internationally recognized leadership expert, speaker, and author who has sold over 16 million books. His organizations have trained more than 2 million leaders worldwide. Every year he speaks to Fortune companies, international government leaders, and audiences as diverse as the United States Military Ac John C.

Every year he speaks to Fortune wrokbook, international government leaders, and audiences as diverse as the United States Military Academy at West Point, the National Football League, and ambassadors at the United Nations.

He was also one of only 25 authors and artists named to Amazon. Books by John C. Trivia About The 17 Indisputab No trivia or quizzes teamwor. Quotes from The 17 Indisputab Just a moment while we sign you in to your Goodreads account.


Skin – Nonmelanocytic tumors – Bacillary angiomatosis. Bacillary angiomatosis is an infection determined by Bartonella henselae . S. Angiomatosis bacilar por Bartonella quintana como primera manifestación de. Num Angiomatosis bacilar o sarcoma de Kaposi. Bacillary angiomatosis or Kaposi’s sarcoma. V. Ortiz-Santamaríaa, C. Tural Llacherb, R. Pérez Andrésc, .

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Bacillary angiomatosis is an infection determined by Bartonella henselae and B.

Bacillary angiomatosis – Wikipedia

The findings of vascular proliferation with presence of bacilli, on the histopathological examination of the skin and bone lesions, led to the diagnosis of bacillary angiomatosis. Corroborating the literature, in the present case the infection affected a young man 29 years old with advanced immunosuppression and clinical and histological lesions compatible with the diagnosis.

Bacillary angiomatosis is an infection universally distributed, rare, caused by Gram-negative and facultative intracellular bacilli of the Bartonella genus, which angiomatowis species and subspecies are currently known, and which also determine other diseases in man.

Cats are the main hosts of B. The infection presents systemic bacilsr, affecting more often the skin, but also the bones, lymph nodes and viscera liver, spleen, brain and gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. Histology of the lesions of affected organs shows vascular proliferation, hence the name “angiomatosis”. By silver staining, the presence of the bacilli is revealed, thus “bacillary”. Bacialr are also several mitoses and cell atypias, in addition to leukocytes angikmatosis leukocytoclasia in the interstices of lobes of lesions without bacillar.

Capillaries are arranged around the bacillary clusters, evident in staining with hematoxylin-eosin and silver. The main differential diagnosis is with Kaposi’s sarcoma.

One should also consider pyogenic granuloma, lymphomas, atypical mycobacterioses na agiomas. In the angiomstosis of infection is used erythromycin mg, four times daily or doxycycline mg twice daily for bcilar to 16 weeks. Man, 29 years, black, presented for a year tumor with overlapping violaceous erythematous nodules located on the back of the hand and the third right finger Figure 1. During evolution, violaceous erythematous nodules appeared on the right parotidomasseteric region, left labial commissure, chest, abdomen, legs and feet Figure 2.

He began to present weight loss, prostration, fever and apathy and was admitted to the emergency room of a university hospital. The research of the human immunodeficiency virus was positive. A skin assessment was requested to the Dermatology service, which proceeded to the biopsy of the abdomen lesion, suspecting of Kaposi’s sarcoma or bacillary angiomatosis. Histopathological examination showed multiple vascular proliferations with interposed neutrophils.

Silver staining showed bacilli aggregates, leading to the diagnosis of bacillary angiomatosis Figure 3. Radiography of the right hand showed lytic lesion in the distal phalanx of the third finger. Histopathology of this lesion showed vascular proliferation partially involving the trabecular bone with bacilli inside, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, characterizing it as bacillary angiomatosis Figure 4. CT scans of the chest and abdomen did not indicate visceral involvement.

When the patient was clinically stable antiretroviral therapy was started and the treatment was supplemented to bacillary angiomatosis with doxycycline mg daily for three months. Violaceous and erythematous nodules over tumor on the back of the right hand and third finger. Violaceous and erythematous nodule on the right parotidomasseteric region Aleft labial commissure B and A B C right leg C.

Histopathological examination of the skin epigastric lesion showing bacilli aggregate silver, x. Histopathological examination of a bone fragment of the finger with vascular proliferation partially involving the trabecular bone and the presence of bacilli hematoxylin and eosin, 40x.

Right hand aspect after 30 days of treatment with azithromycin and ceftriaxone. There is a reduction in bone volume and regression of overlying cutaneous lesions. Aspect of skin lesions on the right parotidomasseteric region A and left labial commissure B after 30 days of treatment with azithromycin and ceftriaxone. Bacillary angiomatosis is a rare infection in patients with AIDS.

Bacillary angiomatosis is observed late in patients with AIDS. Patients with this infection described in the medical literature are men aged between 35 and 39 years – profile compatible with patients most affected by AIDS. The skin is the organ most affected by bacillary angiomatosis, presenting violaceous erythematous lesions, papular, nodular or tumor, single or multiple, 1 as presented by the patient described.

Bone involvement is characterized by well circumscribed osteolytic lesions, painful, cortical or periosteal, which mainly affect the long bones and are observed in X-rays. The bacillary angiomatosis has as differential diagnosis the Kaposi’s sarcoma. In this differentiation is necessary histological evidence, which may be defined by an experienced pathologist with the use of staining with hematoxylin-eosin for the finding of bacilli, epithelioid cells and well-formed blood vessels without fusiform fascicles.

It was not possible to identify the species of Bartonella in this case. As the patient denied contact with cats, living in precarious conditions, presenting osteolytic lesions and deep nodules, possibly he was infected by B. The importance of early recognition of this disease lies in the fact that it is potentially fatal, but easily treatable.

To date, Brazilian medical literature recorded 17 reported cases of bacillary angiomatosis, 2 one in HIV-negative patient and three in patients with skin and bone lesions. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Journal List An Bras Dermatol v.

Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Nov 28; Accepted Jun This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Bacillary angiomatosis is an infection determined by Bartonella henselae and B.

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, Angiomatosis, bacillary, Bartonella, Bartonella quintana. Open in a separate window. Footnotes Conflict of Interest: Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. An atypical subcutaneous infection associated with acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

Am J Clin Pathol.

Treatment outcomes of human bartonellosis a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Infect Dis. Bacillary angiomatosis in HIV-infected patients An epidemiological and clinical study.

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Bacillary angiomatosis and bacillary peliosis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: Bacillary angiomatosis in an HIV-positive man with multiple risk factors A clinical and epidemiological puzzle. Support Center Support Center. Please review our angiomattosis policy.


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It also examines international differences in IFRS practices and the accounting differences that remain between countries such as China, France, Germany and Japan. Particular attention is paid to the key issues of political lobbying, harmonization, and the special accounting problems of multinational companies. This new edition is thoroughly updated for the many changes in accounting and the relevant research published since the 12th edition. Among other things, this includes material on:.

He is adjunct professor at the Norwegian Business School. From to he was a representative on the board of International Accounting Standards Committee. He was formerly editor of the journal, Accounting and Business Research.

Nobes & Parker, Comparative International Accounting | Pearson

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Dhu’l-Nun al-Misri ( – ) was an Egyptian Sufi saint. He was considered the Patron Saint of the Physicians in the early Islamic era of Egypt, and is credited . He is Thawban Ibn Ibrahim Abu al-Fayd and was known as Dhul-Nun al-Misri. He was born in Ikhmim in the governorate of Suhag, Upper Egypt which he left for. Hazrat Dhul-Nun al-Misri (RA) was an Egyptian Sufi saint. He was considered the Patron Saint of the Physicians in the early Islamic era of Egypt, and is credited.

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He was considered the Patron Saint of the Physicians in the early Islamic era of Egypt, and is credited with having specialized the concept a Gnosis in Islam.

Dhu’l-Nunliterally “Lord of the Nun”, is a name that is also given to the Prophet Jonah in Islamic tradition, as “nun” in ancient Arabic meant “big fish” or “whale”, as it did in Aramaic where it also means “fish” See also Nun Bible and Nun letter. His nickname al-Misri means ‘the Egyptian’, a name apparently given to him by his fellows who were not themselves of Egyptian descent as he was, or during his travels outside of Egypt. Dhul-Nun al-Misri is considered among the most prominent saints of early Sufism and holds a position in the Sufi chronicles as high as Junayd Baghdadi d.

Misr studied under various teachers and travelled extensively in Arabia and Syria. Dhul-Nun’s name came about in relation to an incident on a sea voyage. He was falsely accused of stealing a jewel from a merchant. He cried out “O Creator, Thou knowest best”, whereupon a large number of fish raised their heads above the waves, each bearing a jewel in its mouth.

A legendary alchemist and thaumaturge, he is supposed to have known the secret of the Egyptian hieroglyphs.

His sayings and poems, which are extremely dense and rich in mystical imagery, emphasize knowledge or gnosis marifah more than fear makhafah or love mahabbahthe other two major paths of spiritual realization in Sufism.

None of his written works have survived, but a vast collection of poems, sayings, and aphorisms attributed to him continues to live on in oral tradition. Osho mentions him as “an Egyptian Sufi mystic, one of the greatest who has ever walked on the earth”.

Dhul-Nun al-Misri

In the book catching the thread mentions one of the incidents of Dhul-nun I was wandering in the mountains when I observed a party of afflicted folk gathered together.

Then he returns to his cell, and does not emerge again until the following year.

I beheld a man pale of cheek, wasted and with sunken eyes. The awe of him caused me to tremble. He looked on the multitude with compassion.

Then he raised his eyes to heaven, and breathed several times over the afflicted ones. As he was about to retire to his cell, I seized his skirt.

Sayyidina Dhul-Nun Al-Misri

The Friend is watching from the zenith of might and majesty. Notable early Notable modern Singers. Profession of faith Prayer Fasting Alms-giving Pilgrimage. Journey to the Heart. Rebel Publishing House, India. List of sufis Notable early Notable modern Singers.

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A Spaniard in the Works has ratings and 59 reviews. Chris said: Being a dyed-in-the-wool original Beatlemaniac (saw them twice in Houston on my 13t. A Spaniard in the Works. by John Lennon. A Terrific opportunity to grab a signed copy of this Edition of John Lennon. Published by Jonathan Cape London. A Spaniard in the Works is a book from by John Lennon. The book consists of nonsensical stories and drawings similar to the style of his previous book.

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Robert Freeman American, b. Known for his black-and-white photography, Freeman first came to prominence as a photojournalist working for the British newspaper The Sunday Times, for which he photographed a variety of subjects including Nikita Khrushchev in the Kremlin.

John Lennon’s A Spaniard In The Works is published – The Beatles Bible

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Pin It on Pinterest. Description John Lennon enlisted Robert Freeman to design the covers for his first two published collections of writing. Here are contact sheet-style arrangements of the two cover photos Freeman provided for Lennon’s books.

Robert Freeman also created four ground-breaking LP covers for the Beatles: This work ships from the United States. Interested in consigning works by Robert Freeman?

A Spaniard in the Works by John Lennon

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